Boost C++ Libraries

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C++ Boost

Boost.Python

Header <boost/python/operators.hpp>


Contents

Introduction
Classes
Class self_ns::self_t
Class self_t synopsis
Class self_t inplace operators
Class self_t comparison functions
Class self_t non-member operations
Class self_t unary operations
Class self_t value operations
Class template other
Class other synopsis
Class template operator_
Class operator_ synopsis
Objects
self
Examples

Introduction

<boost/python/operators.hpp> provides types and functions for automatically generating Python special methods from the corresponding C++ constructs. Most of these constructs are operator expressions, hence the name. To use the facility, substitute the self object for an object of the class type being wrapped in the expression to be exposed, and pass the result to class_<>::def(). Much of what is exposed in this header should be considered part of the implementation, so is not documented in detail here.

Classes

Class self_ns::self_t

self_ns::self_t is the actual type of the self object. The library isolates self_t in its own namespace, self_ns, in order to prevent the generalized operator templates which operate on it from being found by argument-dependent lookup in other contexts. This should be considered an implementation detail, since users should never have to mention self_t directly.

Class self_ns::self_t synopsis

namespace boost { namespace python { namespace self_ns {
{
   unspecified-type-declaration self_t;

   // inplace operators
   template <class T> operator_<unspecified> operator+=(self_t, T);
   template <class T> operator_<unspecified> operator-=(self_t, T);
   template <class T> operator_<unspecified> operator*=(self_t, T);
   template <class T> operator_<unspecified> operator/=(self_t, T);
   template <class T> operator_<unspecified> operator%=(self_t, T);
   template <class T> operator_<unspecified> operator>>=(self_t, T);
   template <class T> operator_<unspecified> operator<<=(self_t, T);
   template <class T> operator_<unspecified> operator&=(self_t, T);
   template <class T> operator_<unspecified> operator^=(self_t, T);
   template <class T> operator_<unspecified> operator|=(self_t, T);

   // comparisons
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator==(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator!=(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator<(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator>(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator<=(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator>=(L const&, R const&);

   // non-member operations
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator+(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator-(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator*(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator/(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator%(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator>>(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator<<(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator&(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator^(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> operator|(L const&, R const&);
   template <class L, class R> operator_<unspecified> pow(L const&, R const&);

   // unary operations
   operator_<unspecified> operator-(self_t);
   operator_<unspecified> operator+(self_t);
   operator_<unspecified> operator~(self_t);
   operator_<unspecified> operator!(self_t);

   // value operations
   operator_<unspecified> int_(self_t);
   operator_<unspecified> long_(self_t);
   operator_<unspecified> float_(self_t);
   operator_<unspecified> complex_(self_t);
   operator_<unspecified> str(self_t);

}}};
The tables below describe the methods generated when the results of the expressions described are passed as arguments to class_<>::def(). x is an object of the class type being wrapped.

Class self_t inplace operators

In the table below, If r is an object of type other<T>, y is an object of type T; otherwise, y is an object of the same type as r.
C++ Expression Python Method Name C++ Implementation
self += r __iadd__ x += y
self -= r __isub__ x -= y
self *= r __imul__ x *= y
self /= r __idiv__ x /= y
self %= r __imod__ x %= y
self >>= r __irshift__ x >>= y
self <<= r __ilshift__ x <<= y
self &= r __iand__ x &= y
self ^= r __ixor__ x ^= y
self |= r __ior__ x |= y

Class self_t comparison functions

In the tables below, if r is of type self_t, y is an object of the same type as x;
if l or r is an object of type other<T>, y is an object of type T;
otherwise, y is an object of the same type as l or r.
l is never of type self_t.

The column of Python Expressions illustrates the expressions that will be supported in Python for objects convertible to the types of x and y. The secondary operation arises due to Python's reflection rules for rich comparison operators, and are only used when the corresponding operation is not defined as a method of the y object.

C++ Expression Python Method Name C++ Implementation Python Expressions
(primary, secondary)
self == r __eq__ x == y x == y, y == x
l == self __eq__ y == x y == x, x == y
self != r __ne__ x != y x != y, y != x
l != self __ne__ y != x y != x, x != y
self < r __lt__ x < y x < y, y > x
l < self __gt__ y < x y > x, x < y
self > r __gt__ x > y x > y, y < x
l > self __lt__ y > x y < x, x > y
self <= r __le__ x <= y x <= y, y >= x
l <= self __ge__ y <= x y >= x, x <= y
self >= r __ge__ x >= y x >= y, y <= x
l >= self __le__ y >= x y <= x, x >= y

Class self_t non-member operations

The operations whose names begin with "__r" below will only be called if the left-hand operand does not already support the given operation, as described here.
C++ Expression Python Method Name C++ Implementation
self + r __add__ x + y
l + self __radd__ y + x
self - r __sub__ x - y
l - self __rsub__ y - x
self * r __mul__ x * y
l * self __rmul__ y * x
self / r __div__ x / y
l / self __rdiv__ y / x
self % r __mod__ x % y
l % self __rmod__ y % x
self >> r __rshift__ x >> y
l >> self __rrshift__ y >> x
self << r __lshift__ x << y
l << self __rlshift__ y << x
self & r __and__ x & y
l & self __rand__ y & x
self ^ r __xor__ x ^ y
l ^ self __rxor__ y ^ x
self | r __or__ x | y
l | self __ror__ y | x
pow(self, r) __pow__ pow(x, y)
pow(l, self) __rpow__ pow(y, x)

Class self_t unary operations

C++ Expression Python Method Name C++ Implementation
-self __neg__ -x
+self __pos__ +x
~self __invert__ ~x
not self
or
!self
__nonzero__ !!x

Class self_t value operations

C++ Expression Python Method Name C++ Implementation
int_(self) __int__ long(x)
long_ __long__ PyLong_FromLong(x)
float_ __float__ double(x)
complex_ __complex__ std::complex<double>(x)
str __str__ lexical_cast<std::string>(x)

Class Template other

Instances of other<T> can be used in operator expressions with self; the result is equivalent to the same expression with a T object in place of other<T>. Use other<T> to prevent construction of a T object in case it is heavyweight, when no constructor is available, or simply for clarity.

Class Template other synopsis

namespace boost { namespace python
{
  template <class T>
  struct other
  {
  };
}}

Class Template detail::operator_

Instantiations of detail::operator_<> are used as the return type of operator expressions involving self. This should be considered an implementation detail and is only documented here as a way of showing how the result of self-expressions match calls to class_<>::def().

Class Template detail::operator_ synopsis

namespace boost { namespace python { namespace detail
{
  template <unspecified>
  struct operator_
  {
  };
}}}

Objects

self

namespace boost { namespace python
{
  using self_ns::self;
}}

Example

#include <boost/python/module.hpp>
#include <boost/python/class.hpp>
#include <boost/python/operators.hpp>
#include <boost/operators.hpp>

struct number
   : boost::integer_arithmetic<number>
{
   number(long x_) : x(x_) {}
   operator long() const { return x; }

   number& operator+=(number const& rhs)
      { x += rhs }
   number& operator-=(number const& rhs);
      { x -= rhs }
   number& operator*=(number const& rhs)
      { x *= rhs }
   number& operator/=(number const& rhs);
      { x /= rhs }
   number& operator%=(number const& rhs);
      { x %= rhs }

   long x;
};

using namespace boost::python;
BOOST_PYTHON_MODULE(demo)
{
   class_<number>("number")
      // interoperate with self
      .def(self += self)
      .def(self + self)
      .def(self -= self)
      .def(self - self)
      .def(self *= self)
      .def(self * self)
      .def(self /= self)
      .def(self / self)
      .def(self %= self)
      .def(self % self)

      // Convert to Python int
      .def(int_(self))

      // interoperate with long
      .def(self += long())
      .def(self + long())
      .def(long() + self)
      .def(self -= long())
      .def(self - long())
      .def(long() - self)
      .def(self *= long())
      .def(self * long())
      .def(long() * self)
      .def(self /= long())
      .def(self / long())
      .def(long() / self)
      .def(self %= long())
      .def(self % long())
      .def(long() % self)
      ;
}

Revised 3 October, 2003

© Copyright Dave Abrahams 2002. All Rights Reserved.