Boost C++ Libraries

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Parallel BGL Distributed Property Map

A distributed property map adaptor is a property map whose stored values are distributed across multiple non-overlapping memory spaces on different processes. Values local to the current process are stored within a local property map and may be immediately accessed via get and put. Values stored on remote processes may also be accessed via get and put, but the behavior differs slightly:

Using distributed property maps requires a bit more care than using local, sequential property maps. While the syntax and semantics are similar, distributed property maps may contain out-of-date information that can only be guaranteed to be synchronized by calling the synchronize function in all processes.

To address the issue of out-of-date values, distributed property maps support multiple consistency models and may be supplied with a reduction operation.

Distributed property maps meet the requirements of the Readable Property Map and, potentially, the Writable Property Map and Read/Write Property Map concepts. Distributed property maps do not, however, meet the requirements of the Lvalue Property Map concept, because elements residing in another process are not directly addressible. There are several forms of distributed property maps:

Consistency models

Distributed property maps offer many consistency models, which affect how the values read from and written to remote keys relate to the "official" value for that key stored in the owning process. The consistency model of a distributed property map can be set with the member function set_consistency_model to a bitwise-OR of the flags in the boost::parallel::consistency_model enumeration. The individual flags are:

  • cm_forward: The default consistency model, which propagates values forward from put operations on remote processors to the owner of the value being changed.
  • cm_backward: After all values have been forwarded or flushed to the owning processes, each process receives updates values for each of its ghost cells. After synchronization, the values in ghost cells are guaranteed to match the values stored on the owning processor.
  • cm_bidirectional: A combination of both cm_forward and cm_backward.
  • cm_flush: At the beginning of synchronization, all of the values stored locally in ghost cells are sent to their owning processors.
  • cm_reset: Executes a reset() operation after synchronization, setting the values in each ghost cell to their default value.
  • cm_clear: Executes a clear() operation after synchronizing, eliminating all ghost cells.

There are several common combinations of flags that result in interesting consistency models. Some of these combinations are:

  • cm_forward: By itself, the forward consistency model enables algorithms such as Dijkstra's shortest paths and Breadth-First Search to operate correctly.
  • cm_flush & cm_reset: All updates values are queued locally, then flushed during the synchronization step. Once the flush has occurred, the ghost cells are restored to their default values. This consistency model is used by the PageRank implementation to locally accumulate rank for each node.

Reduction operation

The reduction operation maintains consistency by determining how multiple writes to a property map are resolved and what the property map should do if unknown values are requested. More specifically, a reduction operation is used in two cases:

  1. When a value is needed for a remote key but no value is immediately available, the reduction operation provides a suitable default. For instance, a distributed property map storing distances may have a reduction operation that returns an infinite value as the default, whereas a distributed property map for vertex colors may return white as the default.
  2. When a value is received from a remote process, the process owning the key associated with that value must determine which value---the locally stored value, the value received from a remote process, or some combination of the two---will be stored as the "official" value in the property map. The reduction operation transforms the local and remote values into the "official" value to be stored.

The reduction operation of a distributed property map can be set with the set_reduce method of distributed_property_map. The reduce operation is a function object with two signatures. The first signature takes a (remote) key and returns a default value for it, whereas the second signatures takes a key and two values (local first, then remote) and will return the combined value that will be stored in the local property map. Reduction operations must also contain a static constant non_default_resolver", which states whether the reduction operation's default value actually acts like a default value. It should be ``true when the default is meaningful (e.g., infinity for a distance) and false when the default should not be used.

The following reduction operation is used by the distributed PageRank algorithm. The default rank for a remote node is 0. Rank is accumulated locally, and then the reduction operation combines local and remote values by adding them. Combined with a consistency model that flushes all values to the owner and then resets the values locally in each step, the resulting property map will compute partial sums on each processor and then accumulate the results on the owning processor. The PageRank reduction operation is defined as follows.

template<typename T>
struct rank_accumulate_reducer {
  static const bool non_default_resolver = true;

  // The default rank of an unknown node
  template<typename K>
  T operator()(const K&) const { return T(0); }

  template<typename K>
  T operator()(const K&, const T& x, const T& y) const { return x + y; }
};

Distributed property map adaptor

The distributed property map adaptor creates a distributed property map from a local property map, a process group over which distribution should occur, and a global descriptor type that indexes the distributed property map.

Synopsis

template<typename ProcessGroup, typename LocalPropertyMap, typename Key,
         typename GhostCellS = gc_mapS>
class distributed_property_map
{
public:
  typedef ... ghost_regions_type;

  distributed_property_map();

  distributed_property_map(const ProcessGroup& pg,
                           const LocalPropertyMap& pm);

  template<typename Reduce>
  distributed_property_map(const ProcessGroup& pg,
                           const LocalPropertyMap& pm,
                           const Reduce& reduce);

  template<typename Reduce> void set_reduce(const Reduce& reduce);
  void set_consistency_model(int model);

  void flush();
  void reset();
  void clear();
};

reference get(distributed_property_map pm, const key_type& key);

void
put(distributed_property_map pm, const key_type& key, const value_type& value);
local_put(distributed_property_map pm, const key_type& key, const value_type& value);

void request(distributed_property_map pm, const key_type& key);

void synchronize(distributed_property_map& pm);

template<typename Key, typename ProcessGroup, typename LocalPropertyMap>
distributed_property_map<ProcessGroup, LocalPropertyMap, Key>
make_distributed_property_map(const ProcessGroup& pg, LocalPropertyMap pmap);

template<typename Key, typename ProcessGroup, typename LocalPropertyMap,
         typename Reduce>
distributed_property_map<ProcessGroup, LocalPropertyMap, Key>
make_distributed_property_map(const ProcessGroup& pg, LocalPropertyMap pmap,
                              Reduce reduce);

Template parameters

ProcessGroup:
The type of the process group over which the property map is distributed and is also the medium for communication.
LocalPropertyMap:
The type of the property map that will store values for keys local to this processor. The value_type of this property map will become the value_type of the distributed property map. The distributed property map models the same property map concepts as the LocalPropertyMap, with one exception: a distributed property map cannot be an Lvalue Property Map (because remote values are not addressable), and is therefore limited to Read/Write Property Map.
Key:
The key_type of the distributed property map, which must model the Global Descriptor concept. The process ID type of the Key parameter must match the process ID type of the ProcessGroup, and the local descriptor type of the Key must be convertible to the key_type of the LocalPropertyMap.
GhostCellS:

A selector type that indicates how ghost cells should be stored in the distributed property map. There are either two or three options, depending on your compiler:

  • boost::parallel::gc_mapS (default): Uses an STL map to store the ghost cells for each process.
  • boost::parallel::gc_vector_mapS: Uses a sorted STL vector to store the ghost cells for each process. This option works well when there are likely to be few insertions into the ghost cells; for instance, if the only ghost cells used are for neighboring vertices, the property map can be initialized with cells for each neighboring vertex, providing faster lookups than a map and using less space.
  • boost::parallel::gc_hash_mapS: Uses the GCC hash_map to store ghost cells. This option may improve performance over map for large problems sizes, where the set of ghost cells cannot be predetermined.

Member functions

distributed_property_map();

Default-construct a distributed property map. The property map is in an invalid state, and may only be used if it is reassigned to a valid property map.


distributed_property_map(const ProcessGroup& pg,
                         const LocalPropertyMap& pm);

template<typename Reduce>
distributed_property_map(const ProcessGroup& pg,
                         const LocalPropertyMap& pm,
                         const Reduce& reduce);

Construct a property map from a process group and a local property map. If a reduce operation is not supplied, a default of basic_reduce<value_type> will be used.


template<typename Reduce> void set_reduce(const Reduce& reduce);

Replace the current reduction operation with the new operation reduce.


void set_consistency_model(int model);

Sets the consistency model of the distributed property map, which will take effect on the next synchronization step. See the section Consistency models for a description of the effect of various consistency model flags.


void flush();

Emits a message sending the contents of all local ghost cells to the owners of those cells.


void reset();

Replaces the values stored in each of the ghost cells with the default value generated by the reduction operation.


void clear();

Removes all ghost cells from the property map.

Free functions

reference get(distributed_property_map pm, const key_type& key);

Retrieves the element in pm associated with the given key. If the key refers to data stored locally, returns the actual value associated with the key. If the key refers to nonlocal data, returns the value of the ghost cell. If no ghost cell exists, the behavior depends on the current reduction operation: if a reduction operation has been set and has non_default_resolver set true, then a ghost cell will be created according to the default value provided by the reduction operation. Otherwise, the call to get will abort because no value exists for this remote cell. To avoid this problem, either set a reduction operation that generates default values, request() the value and then perform a synchronization step, or put a value into the cell before reading it.


void
put(distributed_property_map pm, const key_type& key, const value_type& value);

Places the given value associated with key into property map pm. If the key refers to data stored locally, the value is immediately updates. If the key refers to data stored in a remote process, updates (or creates) a local ghost cell containing this value for the key and sends the new value to the owning process. Note that the owning process may reject this value based on the reduction operation, but this will not be detected until the next synchronization step.


void
local_put(distributed_property_map pm, const key_type& key, const value_type& value);

Equivalent to put(pm, key, value), except that no message is sent to the owning process when the value is changed for a nonlocal key.


void synchronize(distributed_property_map& pm);

Synchronize the values stored in the distributed property maps. Each process much execute synchronize at the same time, after which the ghost cells in every process will reflect the actual value stored in the owning process.


void request(distributed_property_map pm, const key_type& key);

Request that the element "key" be available after the next synchronization step. For a non-local key, this means establishing a ghost cell and requesting.


template<typename Key, typename ProcessGroup, typename LocalPropertyMap>
distributed_property_map<ProcessGroup, LocalPropertyMap, Key>
make_distributed_property_map(const ProcessGroup& pg, LocalPropertyMap pmap);

template<typename Key, typename ProcessGroup, typename LocalPropertyMap,
         typename Reduce>
distributed_property_map<ProcessGroup, LocalPropertyMap, Key>
make_distributed_property_map(const ProcessGroup& pg, LocalPropertyMap pmap,
                              Reduce reduce);

Create a distributed property map over process group pg and local property map pmap. A default reduction operation will be generated if it is not provided.

Distributed iterator property map

The distributed iterator property map adaptor permits the creation of distributed property maps from random access iterators using the same syntax as non-distributed iterator property maps. The specialization is based on a local property map, which contains the indices for local descriptors and is typically returned to describe the vertex indices of a distributed graph.

Synopsis

template<typename RandomAccessIterator, typename ProcessGroup,
         typename GlobalKey, typename LocalMap, typename ValueType,
         typename Reference>
class iterator_property_map<RandomAccessIterator,
                            local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap>,
                            ValueType, Reference>
{
public:
  typedef local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap> index_map_type;

  iterator_property_map();
  iterator_property_map(RandomAccessIterator iter, const index_map_type& id);
};

reference get(iterator_property_map pm, const key_type& key);
void put(iterator_property_map pm, const key_type& key, const value_type& value);

template<typename RandomAccessIterator, typename ProcessGroup,
         typename GlobalKey, typename LocalMap>
iterator_property_map<RandomAccessIterator,
                      local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap> >
make_iterator_property_map(RandomAccessIterator iter,
                           local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap> id);

Member functions

iterator_property_map();

Default-constructs a distributed iterator property map. The property map is in an invalid state, and must be reassigned before it may be used.


iterator_property_map(RandomAccessIterator iter, const index_map_type& id);

Constructs a distributed iterator property map using the property map id to map global descriptors to local indices. The random access iterator sequence [iter, iter + n) must be a valid range, where [0, n) is the range of local indices.

Free functions

reference get(iterator_property_map pm, const key_type& key);

Returns the value associated with the given key from the distributed property map.


void put(iterator_property_map pm, const key_type& key, const value_type& value);

Associates the value with the given key in the distributed property map.


template<typename RandomAccessIterator, typename ProcessGroup,
         typename GlobalKey, typename LocalMap, typename ValueType,
         typename Reference>
iterator_property_map<RandomAccessIterator,
                      local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap>,
                                         ValueType, Reference>
make_iterator_property_map(RandomAccessIterator iter,
                           local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap>,
                                              ValueType, Reference> id);

Creates a distributed iterator property map using the given iterator iter and local index property map id.

Distributed safe iterator property map

The distributed safe iterator property map adaptor permits the creation of distributed property maps from random access iterators using the same syntax as non-distributed safe iterator property maps. The specialization is based on a local property map, which contains the indices for local descriptors and is typically returned to describe the vertex indices of a distributed graph. Safe iterator property maps check the indices of accesses to ensure that they are not out-of-bounds before attempting to access an value.

Synopsis

template<typename RandomAccessIterator, typename ProcessGroup,
         typename GlobalKey, typename LocalMap, typename ValueType,
         typename Reference>
class safe_iterator_property_map<RandomAccessIterator,
                                 local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap>,
                                 ValueType, Reference>
{
public:
  typedef local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap> index_map_type;

  safe_iterator_property_map();
  safe_iterator_property_map(RandomAccessIterator iter, std::size_t n,
                             const index_map_type& id);
};

reference get(safe_iterator_property_map pm, const key_type& key);
void put(safe_iterator_property_map pm, const key_type& key, const value_type& value);

template<typename RandomAccessIterator, typename ProcessGroup,
         typename GlobalKey, typename LocalMap, typename ValueType,
         typename Reference>
safe_iterator_property_map<RandomAccessIterator,
                           local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap>,
                                              ValueType, Reference>
make_safe_iterator_property_map(RandomAccessIterator iter,
                                std::size_t n,
                                local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap>,
                                                   ValueType, Reference> id);

Member functions

safe_iterator_property_map();

Default-constructs a distributed safe iterator property map. The property map is in an invalid state, and must be reassigned before it may be used.


safe_iterator_property_map(RandomAccessIterator iter, std::size_t n,
                           const index_map_type& id);

Constructs a distributed safe iterator property map using the property map id to map global descriptors to local indices. The random access iterator sequence [iter, iter + n).

Free functions

reference get(safe_iterator_property_map pm, const key_type& key);

Returns the value associated with the given key from the distributed property map.


void put(safe_iterator_property_map pm, const key_type& key, const value_type& value);

Associates the value with the given key in the distributed property map.


template<typename RandomAccessIterator, typename ProcessGroup,
         typename GlobalKey, typename LocalMap, typename ValueType,
         typename Reference>
safe_iterator_property_map<RandomAccessIterator,
                           local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap>,
                                              ValueType, Reference>
make_safe_iterator_property_map(RandomAccessIterator iter,
                                std::size_t n,
                                local_property_map<ProcessGroup, GlobalKey, LocalMap>,
                                                   ValueType, Reference> id);

Creates a distributed safe iterator property map using the given iterator iter and local index property map id. The indices in id must

Local property map

A property map adaptor that accesses an underlying property map whose key type is the local part of the Key type for the local subset of keys. Local property maps are typically used by distributed graph types for vertex index properties.

Synopsis

template<typename ProcessGroup, typename GlobalKey, typename LocalMap>
  class local_property_map
  {
  public:
  typedef typename property_traits<LocalMap>::value_type value_type;
  typedef GlobalKey                                      key_type;
  typedef typename property_traits<LocalMap>::reference  reference;
  typedef typename property_traits<LocalMap>::category   category;

  explicit
  local_property_map(const ProcessGroup& process_group = ProcessGroup(),
                     const LocalMap& local_map = LocalMap());

  reference operator[](const key_type& key);
};

reference get(const local_property_map& pm, key_type key);
void put(local_property_map pm, const key_type& key, const value_type& value);

Template parameters

ProcessGroup:the type of the process group over which the global keys are distributed.
GlobalKey:The key_type of the local property map, which must model the Global Descriptor concept. The process ID type of the GlobalKey parameter must match the process ID type of the ProcessGroup, and the local descriptor type of the GlobalKey must be convertible to the key_type of the LocalMap.
LocalMap:the type of the property map that will store values for keys local to this processor. The value_type of this property map will become the value_type of the local property map. The local property map models the same property map concepts as the LocalMap.

Member functions

explicit
local_property_map(const ProcessGroup& process_group = ProcessGroup(),
                   const LocalMap& local_map = LocalMap());

Constructs a local property map whose keys are distributed across the given process group and which accesses the given local map.


reference operator[](const key_type& key);

Access the value associated with the given key, which must be local to this process.

Free functions

reference get(const local_property_map& pm, key_type key);

Return the value associated with the given key, which must be local to this process.


void put(local_property_map pm, const key_type& key, const value_type& value);

Set the value associated with the given key, which must be local to this process.


Copyright (C) 2004, 2005 The Trustees of Indiana University.

Authors: Douglas Gregor and Andrew Lumsdaine