...one of the most highly
regarded and expertly designed C++ library projects in the
world.

— Herb Sutter and Andrei
Alexandrescu, C++
Coding Standards

#include <boost/math/special_functions/expm1.hpp>

namespace boost{ namespace math{ template <class T>calculated-result-typeexpm1(T x); template <class T, class Policy>calculated-result-typeexpm1(T x, const Policy&); }} // namespaces

Returns e^{x} - 1.

The return type of this function is computed using the *result
type calculation rules*: the return is `double`

when *x* is an integer type and T otherwise.

The final Policy argument is optional and can be used to control the behaviour of the function: how it handles errors, what level of precision to use etc. Refer to the policy documentation for more details.

For small x, then `e`

is very close to 1, as a result calculating ^{x}`e`

results in
catastrophic cancellation errors when x is small. ^{x} - 1`expm1`

calculates `e`

using rational approximations (for up to 128-bit long doubles),
otherwise via a series expansion when x is small (giving an accuracy of
less than 2ɛ).
^{x} - 1

Finally when BOOST_HAS_EXPM1 is defined then the `float/double/long double`

specializations of this template simply forward to the platform's native
(POSIX) implementation of this function.

The following graph illustrates the behaviour of expm1:

For built in floating point types `expm1`

should have approximately 1 epsilon accuracy.

A mixture of spot test sanity checks, and random high precision test values calculated using NTL::RR at 1000-bit precision.