Boost C++ Libraries

...one of the most highly regarded and expertly designed C++ library projects in the world. Herb Sutter and Andrei Alexandrescu, C++ Coding Standards

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Extended functionality

Default initialization for vector-like containers
Ordered range insertion for associative containers (ordered_unique_range, ordered_range)
Configurable tree-based associative ordered containers
Constant-time range splice for (s)list
Extended allocators

STL and most other containers value initialize new elements in common operations like vector::resize(size_type n) or explicit vector::vector(size_type n).

In some performance-sensitive environments, where vectors are used as a replacement for variable-size buffers for file or network operations, value initialization is a cost that is not negligible as elements are going to be overwritten by an external source shortly after new elements are added to the container.

Boost.Container offers two new members for vector, static_vector and stable_vector: explicit container::container(size_type n, default_init_t) and explicit container::resize(size_type n, default_init_t), where new elements are constructed using default initialization.

When filling associative containers big performance gains can be achieved if the input range to be inserted is guaranteed by the user to be ordered according to the predicate. This can happen when inserting values from a set to a multiset or between different associative container families ([multi]set/map vs. flat_[multi]set/map).

Boost.Container has some overloads for constructors and insertions taking an ordered_unique_range_t or an ordered_range_t tag parameters as the first argument. When an ordered_unique_range_t overload is used, the user notifies the container that the input range is ordered according to the container predicate and has no duplicates. When an ordered_range_t overload is used, the user notifies the container that the input range is ordered according to the container predicate but it might have duplicates. With this information, the container can avoid multiple predicate calls and improve insertion times.

set, multiset, map and multimap associative containers are implemented as binary search trees which offer the needed complexity and stability guarantees required by the C++ standard for associative containers.

Boost.Container offers the possibility to configure at compile time some parameters of the binary search tree implementation. This configuration is passed as the last template parameter and defined using the utility class tree_assoc_options.

The following parameters can be configured:

  • The underlying tree implementation type (tree_type). By default these containers use a red-black tree but the user can use other tree types:
  • Whether the size saving mechanisms are used to implement the tree nodes (optimize_size). By default this option is activated and is only meaningful to red-black and avl trees (in other cases, this option will be ignored). This option will try to put rebalancing metadata inside the "parent" pointer of the node if the pointer type has enough alignment. Usually, due to alignment issues, the metadata uses the size of a pointer yielding to four pointer size overhead per node, whereas activating this option usually leads to 3 pointer size overhead. Although some mask operations must be performed to extract data from this special "parent" pointer, in several systems this option also improves performance due to the improved cache usage produced by the node size reduction.

See the following example to see how tree_assoc_options can be used to customize these containers:

#include <boost/container/set.hpp>
#include <cassert>

int main ()
{
   using namespace boost::container;

   //First define several options
   //

   //This option specifies an AVL tree based associative container
   typedef tree_assoc_options< tree_type<avl_tree> >::type AVLTree;

   //This option specifies an AVL tree based associative container
   //disabling node size optimization.
   typedef tree_assoc_options< tree_type<avl_tree>
                             , optimize_size<false> >::type AVLTreeNoSizeOpt;

   //This option specifies an Splay tree based associative container
   typedef tree_assoc_options< tree_type<splay_tree> >::type SplayTree;

   //Now define new tree-based associative containers
   //

   //AVLTree based set container
   typedef set<int, std::less<int>, std::allocator<int>, AVLTree> AvlSet;

   //AVLTree based set container without size optimization
   typedef set<int, std::less<int>, std::allocator<int>, AVLTreeNoSizeOpt> AvlSetNoSizeOpt;

   //Splay tree based multiset container
   typedef multiset<int, std::less<int>, std::allocator<int>, SplayTree> SplayMultiset;

   //Use them
   //
   AvlSet avl_set;
   avl_set.insert(0);
   assert(avl_set.find(0) != avl_set.end());

   AvlSetNoSizeOpt avl_set_no_szopt;
   avl_set_no_szopt.insert(1);
   avl_set_no_szopt.insert(1);
   assert(avl_set_no_szopt.count(1) == 1);

   SplayMultiset splay_mset;
   splay_mset.insert(2);
   splay_mset.insert(2);
   assert(splay_mset.count(2) == 2);
   return 0;
}

In the first C++ standard list::size() was not required to be constant-time, and that caused some controversy in the C++ community. Quoting Howard Hinnant's On List Size paper:

There is a considerable debate on whether std::list<T>::size() should be O(1) or O(N). The usual argument notes that it is a tradeoff with:

splice(iterator position, list& x, iterator first, iterator last);

If size() is O(1) and this != &x, then this method must perform a linear operation so that it can adjust the size member in each list

C++11 definitely required size() to be O(1), so range splice became O(N). However, Howard Hinnant's paper proposed a new splice overload so that even O(1) list:size() implementations could achieve O(1) range splice when the range size was known to the caller:

void splice(iterator position, list& x, iterator first, iterator last, size_type n);

Effects: Inserts elements in the range [first, last) before position and removes the elements from x.

Requires: [first, last) is a valid range in x. The result is undefined if position is an iterator in the range [first, last). Invalidates only the iterators and references to the spliced elements. n == distance(first, last).

Throws: Nothing.

Complexity: Constant time.

This new splice signature allows the client to pass the distance of the input range in. This information is often available at the call site. If it is passed in, then the operation is constant time, even with an O(1) size.

Boost.Container implements this overload for list and a modified version of it for slist (as slist::size() is also O(1)).

Many C++ programmers have ever wondered where does good old realloc fit in C++. And that's a good question. Could we improve vector performance using memory expansion mechanisms to avoid too many copies? But vector is not the only container that could benefit from an improved allocator interface: we could take advantage of the insertion of multiple elements in list using a burst allocation mechanism that could amortize costs (mutex locks, free memory searches...) that can't be amortized when using single node allocation strategies.

These improvements require extending the STL allocator interface and use make use of a new general purpose allocator since new and delete don't offer expansion and burst capabilities.

The following extended allocators are provided:

  • allocator: This extended allocator offers expansion, shrink-in place and burst allocation capabilities implemented as a thin wrapper around the modified DLMalloc. It can be used with all containers and it should be the default choice when the programmer wants to use extended allocator capabilities.
  • node_allocator: It's a Simple Segregated Storage allocator, similar to Boost.Pool that takes advantage of the modified DLMalloc burst interface. It does not return memory to the DLMalloc allocator (and thus, to the system), unless explicitly requested. It does offer a very small memory overhead so it's suitable for node containers ([boost::container::list list], [boost::container::slist slist] [boost::container::set set]...) that allocate very small value_types and it offers improved node allocation times for single node allocations with respecto to allocator.
  • adaptive_pool: It's a low-overhead node allocator that can return memory to the system. The overhead can be very low (< 5% for small nodes) and it's nearly as fast as node_allocator. It's also suitable for node containers.

Use them simply specifying the new allocator in the corresponding template argument of your favourite container:

#include <boost/container/vector.hpp>
#include <boost/container/flat_set.hpp>
#include <boost/container/list.hpp>
#include <boost/container/set.hpp>

//"allocator" is a general purpose allocator that can reallocate
//memory, something useful for vector and flat associative containers
#include <boost/container/allocator.hpp>

//"adaptive_pool" is a node allocator, specially suited for
//node-based containers
#include <boost/container/adaptive_pool.hpp>

int main ()
{
   using namespace boost::container;

   //A vector that can reallocate memory to implement faster insertions
   vector<int, allocator<int> > extended_alloc_vector;

   //A flat set that can reallocate memory to implement faster insertions
   flat_set<int, std::less<int>, allocator<int> > extended_alloc_flat_set;

   //A list that can manages nodes to implement faster
   //range insertions and deletions
   list<int, adaptive_pool<int> > extended_alloc_list;

   //A set that can recycle nodes to implement faster
   //range insertions and deletions
   set<int, std::less<int>, adaptive_pool<int> > extended_alloc_set;

   //Now user them as always
   extended_alloc_vector.push_back(0);
   extended_alloc_flat_set.insert(0);
   extended_alloc_list.push_back(0);
   extended_alloc_set.insert(0);

   //...
   return 0;
}


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