...one of the most highly
regarded and expertly designed C++ library projects in the
world. — Herb Sutter and Andrei
The intent of this library is to implement the unordered containers in the draft standard, so the interface was fixed. But there are still some implementation decisions to make. The priorities are conformance to the standard and portability.
The wikipedia article on hash tables has a good summary of the implementation issues for hash tables in general.
By specifying an interface for accessing the buckets of the container the standard pretty much requires that the hash table uses chained addressing.
It would be conceivable to write a hash table that uses another method. For example, it could use open addressing, and use the lookup chain to act as a bucket but there are a some serious problems with this:
So chained addressing is used.
For containers with unique keys I store the buckets in a single-linked list. There are other possible data structures (such as a double-linked list) that allow for some operations to be faster (such as erasing and iteration) but the possible gain seems small compared to the extra memory needed. The most commonly used operations (insertion and lookup) would not be improved at all.
But for containers with equivalent keys a single-linked list can degrade badly
when a large number of elements with equivalent keys are inserted. I think
it's reasonable to assume that users who choose to use
unordered_multimap do so
because they are likely to insert elements with equivalent keys. So I have
used an alternative data structure that doesn't degrade, at the expense of
an extra pointer per node.
This works by adding storing a circular linked list for each group of equivalent nodes in reverse order. This allows quick navigation to the end of a group (since the first element points to the last) and can be quickly updated when elements are inserted or erased. The main disadvantage of this approach is some hairy code for erasing elements.
There are two popular methods for choosing the number of buckets in a hash table. One is to have a prime number of buckets, another is to use a power of 2.
Using a prime number of buckets, and choosing a bucket by using the modulus of the hash function's result will usually give a good result. The downside is that the required modulus operation is fairly expensive.
Using a power of 2 allows for much quicker selection of the bucket to use, but at the expense of loosing the upper bits of the hash value. For some specially designed hash functions it is possible to do this and still get a good result but as the containers can take arbitrary hash functions this can't be relied on.
To avoid this a transformation could be applied to the hash function, for an example see Thomas Wang's article on integer hash functions. Unfortunately, a transformation like Wang's requires knowledge of the number of bits in the hash value, so it isn't portable enough. This leaves more expensive methods, such as Knuth's Multiplicative Method (mentioned in Wang's article). These don't tend to work as well as taking the modulus of a prime, and the extra computation required might negate efficiency advantage of power of 2 hash tables.
So, this implementation uses a prime number for the hash table size.
are not included in the standard, but I've added them as I think they could
be useful and can be implemented fairly efficiently. They are specified differently
to the other standard containers, comparing keys using the equality predicate
It's also different to the proposal n2944.
which uses the equality operators for the whole of
This implementation just uses the key equality function for the key, and
mapped_type's equality operator in
for the mapped part of the element.
the mapped values for a group of elements with equivalent keys are only considered
equal if they are in the same order, in n2944 they just need to be a permutation
of each other. Since the order of elements with equal keys is now defined to
be stable, it seems to me that their order can be considered part of the container's
Recent drafts have included an overhaul of the allocators, but this was dependent on concepts which are no longer in the standard. n2946 attempts to respecify them without concepts. I'll try to implement this (or an appropriate later version) in a future version of boost, possibly changed a little to accomodate non-C++0x compilers.
It isn't clear how to swap containers when their allocators aren't equal. This is Issue 431: Swapping containers with unequal allocators. This has been resolved with the new allocator specification, so this should be fixed when support is added.
It wan't specified if
the order of elements with equivalent keys (i.e. if they're stable under
it's been specified that they do and this implementation follows that.