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// Copyright (c) 2001 Ronald Garcia, Indiana University (
// Andrew Lumsdaine, Indiana University (
// Distributed under the Boost Software License, Version 1.0. (See accompany-
// ing file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at


// MS compatible compilers support #pragma once
#if defined(_MSC_VER) && (_MSC_VER >= 1020)
# pragma once

// utf8_codecvt_facet.hpp

// This header defines class utf8_codecvt_facet, derived from 
// std::codecvt<wchar_t, char>, which can be used to convert utf8 data in
// files into wchar_t strings in the application.
// The header is NOT STANDALONE, and is not to be included by the USER.
// There are at least two libraries which want to use this functionality, and
// we want to avoid code duplication. It would be possible to create utf8
// library, but:
// - this requires review process first
// - in the case, when linking the a library which uses utf8 
//   (say 'program_options'), user should also link to the utf8 library.
//   This seems inconvenient, and asking a user to link to an unrevieved 
//   library is strange. 
// Until the above points are fixed, a library which wants to use utf8 must:
// - include this header in one of it's headers or sources
// - include the corresponding boost/detail/utf8_codecvt_facet.ipp file in one
//   of its sources
// - before including either file, the library must define
//   - BOOST_UTF8_BEGIN_NAMESPACE to the namespace declaration that must be used
//   - BOOST_UTF8_END_NAMESPACE to the code to close the previous namespace
//     declaration.
//   - BOOST_UTF8_DECL -- to the code which must be used for all 'exportable'
//     symbols.
// For example, program_options library might contain:
//    #define BOOST_UTF8_BEGIN_NAMESPACE <backslash character> 
//             namespace boost { namespace program_options {
//    #define BOOST_UTF8_END_NAMESPACE }}
//    #include <boost/detail/utf8_codecvt_facet.ipp>
// Essentially, each library will have its own copy of utf8 code, in
// different namespaces. 

// Note:(Robert Ramey).  I have made the following alterations in the original
// code.
// a) Rendered utf8_codecvt<wchar_t, char>  with using templates
// b) Move longer functions outside class definition to prevent inlining
// and make code smaller
// c) added on a derived class to permit translation to/from current
// locale to utf8

//  See for updates, documentation, and revision history.

// archives stored as text - note these ar templated on the basic
// stream templates to accommodate wide (and other?) kind of characters
// note the fact that on libraries without wide characters, ostream is
// is not a specialization of basic_ostream which in fact is not defined
// in such cases.   So we can't use basic_ostream<OStream::char_type> but rather
// use two template parameters
// utf8_codecvt_facet
//   This is an implementation of a std::codecvt facet for translating 
//   from UTF-8 externally to UCS-4.  Note that this is not tied to
//   any specific types in order to allow customization on platforms
//   where wchar_t is not big enough.
// NOTES:  The current implementation jumps through some unpleasant hoops in
// order to deal with signed character types.  As a std::codecvt_base::result,
// it is necessary  for the ExternType to be convertible to unsigned  char.
// I chose not to tie the extern_type explicitly to char. But if any combination
// of types other than <wchar_t,char_t> is used, then std::codecvt must be
// specialized on those types for this to work.

#include <locale>
#include <cwchar>   // for mbstate_t
#include <cstddef>  // for std::size_t

#include <boost/config.hpp>
#include <boost/detail/workaround.hpp>

namespace std {
    using ::mbstate_t;
    using ::size_t;

// maximum lenght of a multibyte string
#define MB_LENGTH_MAX 8


//                                                                            //
//                          utf8_codecvt_facet                                //
//                                                                            //
//            See utf8_codecvt_facet.ipp for the implementation.              //


struct BOOST_UTF8_DECL utf8_codecvt_facet :
    public std::codecvt<wchar_t, char, std::mbstate_t>  
    explicit utf8_codecvt_facet(std::size_t no_locale_manage=0);
    virtual ~utf8_codecvt_facet(){}
    virtual std::codecvt_base::result do_in(
        std::mbstate_t& state, 
        const char * from,
        const char * from_end, 
        const char * & from_next,
        wchar_t * to, 
        wchar_t * to_end, 
        wchar_t*& to_next
    ) const;

    virtual std::codecvt_base::result do_out(
        std::mbstate_t & state,
        const wchar_t * from,
        const wchar_t * from_end,
        const wchar_t*  & from_next,
        char * to,
        char * to_end,
        char * & to_next
    ) const;

    bool invalid_continuing_octet(unsigned char octet_1) const {
        return (octet_1 < 0x80|| 0xbf< octet_1);

    bool invalid_leading_octet(unsigned char octet_1)   const {
        return (0x7f < octet_1 && octet_1 < 0xc0) ||
            (octet_1 > 0xfd);

    // continuing octets = octets except for the leading octet
    static unsigned int get_cont_octet_count(unsigned char lead_octet) {
        return get_octet_count(lead_octet) - 1;

    static unsigned int get_octet_count(unsigned char lead_octet);

    // How many "continuing octets" will be needed for this word
    // ==   total octets - 1.
    int get_cont_octet_out_count(wchar_t word) const ;

    virtual bool do_always_noconv() const BOOST_NOEXCEPT_OR_NOTHROW {
        return false;

    // UTF-8 isn't really stateful since we rewind on partial conversions
    virtual std::codecvt_base::result do_unshift(
        char * from,
        char * /*to*/,
        char * & next
    ) const {
        next = from;
        return ok;

    virtual int do_encoding() const BOOST_NOEXCEPT_OR_NOTHROW {
        const int variable_byte_external_encoding=0;
        return variable_byte_external_encoding;

    // How many char objects can I process to get <= max_limit
    // wchar_t objects?
    virtual int do_length(
        std::mbstate_t &,
        const char * from,
        const char * from_end, 
        std::size_t max_limit
    ) const

    // Nonstandard override
    virtual int do_length(
        const std::mbstate_t & s,
        const char * from,
        const char * from_end, 
        std::size_t max_limit
    ) const
        return do_length(
            const_cast<std::mbstate_t &>(s),

    // Largest possible value do_length(state,from,from_end,1) could return.
    virtual int do_max_length() const BOOST_NOEXCEPT_OR_NOTHROW {
        return 6; // largest UTF-8 encoding of a UCS-4 character