# Boost C++ Libraries

...one of the most highly regarded and expertly designed C++ library projects in the world.

# Overview of Tensor, Matrix- and Vector Types

Contents:
Vectors
Vector Proxies
Matrices
Matrix Proxies
Tensors
Special Storage Layouts

## Notation

 `T` is the data type. For general linear algebra operations this will be a real type e.g. `double`, ... `F` is the orientation type, either `row_major` or `column_major` for matrices and `first_order` or `last_order` for tensors `A, IA, TA` is an array storage type, e.g. ```std::vector, bounded_array, unbounded_array, ...``` `TRI` is a triangular functor: ```lower, unit_lower, strict_lower, upper, unit_upper, strict_upper``` `M, N, K` are unsigned integer sizes (`std::size_t`) `IB` is an index base (`std::size_t`) `VEC` is any vector type `MAT` is any matrix type `TEN` is any tensor type `[...]` denote optional arguments - for more details look at the section "storage layout".

## Vectors

Definition Description
`vector<T [, A]>   v(size);` a dense vector of values of type `T` of variable size. A storage type `A` can be specified which defaults to `unbounded_array`. Elements are constructed by `A`, which need not initialise their value.
`bounded_vector<T, N>   v;` a dense vector of values of type `T` of variable size but with maximum `N`. The default constructor creates `v` with size `N`. Elements are constructed by the storage type `bounded_array`, which need not initialise their value.
`c_vector<T, M>   v(size);` a dense vector of values of type `T` with the given size. The data is stored as an ordinary C++ array ```T data_[M]```
`zero_vector<T>   v(size);` the zero vector of type `T` with the given size.
`unit_vector<T>   v(size, index);` the unit vector of type `T` with the given size. The vector is zero other then a single specified element.
`index` should be less than `size`.
`mapped_vector<T [, S]>   v(size);` a sparse vector of values of type `T` of variable size. The sparse storage type `S` can be ```std::map<size_t, T>``` or `map_array<size_t, T>`.
`compressed_vector<T [,IB, IA, TA]>   v(size);` a sparse vector of values of type `T` of variable size. The non zero values are stored as two seperate arrays - an index array and a value array. The index array is always sorted and there is at most one entry for each index.
`coordinate_vector<T [,IB, IA, TA]>   v(size);` a sparse vector of values of type `T` of variable size. The non zero values are stored as two seperate arrays - an index array and a value array. The arrays may be out of order with multiple entries for each vector element. If there are multiple values for the same index the sum of these values is the real value.

Note: the default types are defined in `boost/numeric/ublas/fwd.hpp`.

## Vector Proxies

Definition Description
`vector_range<VEC>   vr(v, range);` a vector referencing a continuous subvector of elements of vector `v` containing all elements specified by `range`.
`vector_slice<VEC>   vs(v, slice);` a vector referencing a non continuous subvector of elements of vector `v` containing all elements specified by `slice`.
`matrix_row<MAT>   vr(m, index);` a vector referencing the `index`-th row of matrix `m`
`matrix_column<MAT>   vc(m, index);` a vector referencing the `index`-th column of matrix `m`

## Matrices

Definition Description
`matrix<T [, F, A]>   m(size1, size2);` a dense matrix of values of type `T` of variable size. A storage type `A` can be specified which defaults to `unbounded_array`. The orientation functor `F` defaults to `row_major`. Elements are constructed by `A`, which need not initialise their value.
`bounded_matrix<T, M, N [, F]>   m;` a dense matrix of type `T` with variable size with maximum `M`-by-`N`. The orientation functor `F` defaults to `row_major`. The default constructor creates `m` with size `M`-by-`N`. Elements are constructed by the storage type `bounded_array`, which need not initialise their value.
`c_matrix<T, M, N>   m(size1, size2);` a dense matrix of values of type `T` with the given size. The data is stored as an ordinary C++ array ```T data_[N][M]```
```vector_of_vector<T [, F, A]>   m(size1, size2);``` a dense matrix of values of type `T` with the given size. The data is stored as a vector of vectors. The orientation `F` defaults to `row_major`. The storage type `S` defaults to `unbounded_array<unbounded_array<T> >`
`zero_matrix<T>   m(size1, size2);` a zero matrix of type `T` with the given size.
`identity_matrix<T>   m(size1, size2);` an identity matrix of type `T` with the given size. The values are `v(i,j) = (i==j)?T(1):T()`.
```scalar_matrix<T>   m(size1, size2, value);``` a matrix of type `T` with the given size that has the value `value` everywhere.
```triangular_matrix<T [, TRI, F, A]>   m(size);``` a triangular matrix of values of type `T` of variable size. Only the nonzero elements are stored in the given order `F`. ("triangular packed storage") The triangular type `F` defaults to `lower`, the orientation type `F` defaults to `row_major`.
```banded_matrix<T [, F, A]>   m(size1, size2, n_lower, n_upper);``` a banded matrix of values of type `T` of variable size with `n_lower` sub diagonals and `n_upper` super diagonals. Only the nonzero elements are stored in the given order `F`. ("packed storage")
```symmetric_matrix<T [, TRI, F, A]>   m(size);``` a symmetric matrix of values of type `T` of variable size. Only the given triangular matrix is stored in the given order `F`.
```hermitian_matrix<T [, TRI, F, A]>   m(size);``` a hermitian matrix of values of type `T` of variable size. Only the given triangular matrix is stored using the order `F`.
```mapped_matrix<T, [F, S]>   m(size1, size2 [, non_zeros]);``` a sparse matrix of values of type `T` of variable size. The sparse storage type `S` can be either ```std::map<size_t, std::map<size_t, T> >``` or ```map_array<size_t, map_array<size_t, T> >```.
```sparse_vector_of_sparse_vector<T, [F, C]>   m(size1, size2 [, non_zeros]);``` a sparse matrix of values of type `T` of variable size.
```compressed_matrix<T, [F, IB, IA, TA]>   m(size1, size2 [, non_zeros]);``` a sparse matrix of values of type `T` of variable size. The values are stored in compressed row/column storage.
```coordinate_matrix<T, [F, IB, IA, TA]>   m(size1, size2 [, non_zeros]);``` a sparse matrix of values of type `T` of variable size. The values are stored in 3 parallel array as triples (i, j, value). More than one value for each pair of indices is possible, the real value is the sum of all.
```generalized_vector_of_vector<T, F, A>   m(size1, size2 [, non_zeros]);``` a sparse matrix of values of type `T` of variable size. The values are stored as a vector of sparse vectors, e.g. ```generalized_vector_of_vector<double, row_major, unbounded_array<coordinate_vector<double> > >```

Note: the default types are defined in `boost/numeric/ublas/fwd.hpp`.

## Matrix Proxies

Definition Description
`triangular_adaptor<MAT, TRI>   ta(m);` a triangular matrix referencing a selection of elements of the matrix `m`.
`symmetric_adaptor<MAT, TRI>   sa(m);` a symmetric matrix referencing a selection of elements of the matrix `m`.
`hermitian_adaptor<MAT, TRI>   ha(m);` a hermitian matrix referencing a selection of elements of the matrix `m`.
```banded_adaptor<MAT>   ba(m, n_lower, n_upper);``` a banded matrix referencing a selection of elements of the matrix `m`.
```matrix_range<MAT, TRI>   mr(m, range1, range2);``` a matrix referencing a submatrix of elements in the matrix `m`.
```matrix_slice<MAT, TRI>   ms(m, slice1, slice2);``` a matrix referencing a non continues submatrix of elements in the matrix `m`.

## Tensors

Definition Description
`tensor<T [, F, A]>   t(size1, size2, ... );` a dense matrix of values of type `T` of variable size. A storage type `A` can be specified which defaults to `std::vector<T>`. The orientation type `F` defaults to `first_order`. Elements are constructed by `A`, which need not initialise their value.

## Special Storage Layouts

The library supports conventional dense, packed and basic sparse vector and matrix storage layouts. The description of the most common constructions of vectors and matrices comes next.

Construction Comment
```vector<T,  std::vector<T> >   v (size)``` a dense vector, storage is provided by a standard vector.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```vector<T,  unbounded_array<T> >   v (size)``` a dense vector, storage is provided by a heap-based array.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```vector<T,  bounded_array<T, N> >   v (size)``` a dense vector, storage is provided by a stack-based array.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```mapped_vector<T,  std::map<std::size_t, T> >   v (size, non_zeros)``` a sparse vector, storage is provided by a standard map.
```mapped_vector<T,  map_array<std::size_t, T> >   v (size, non_zeros)``` a sparse vector, storage is provided by a map array.
```matrix<T,  row_major,  std::vector<T> >   m (size1, size2)``` a dense matrix, orientation is row major, storage is provided by a standard vector.
```matrix<T,  column_major,  std::vector<T> >   m (size1, size2)``` a dense matrix, orientation is column major, storage is provided by a standard vector.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```matrix<T,  row_major,  unbounded_array<T> >   m (size1, size2)``` a dense matrix, orientation is row major, storage is provided by a heap-based array.
```matrix<T,  column_major,  unbounded_array<T> >   m (size1, size2)``` a dense matrix, orientation is column major, storage is provided by a heap-based array.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```matrix<T,  row_major,  bounded_array<T, N1 * N2> >   m (size1, size2)``` a dense matrix, orientation is row major, storage is provided by a stack-based array.
```matrix<T,  column_major,  bounded_array<T, N1 * N2> >   m (size1, size2)``` a dense matrix, orientation is column major, storage is provided by a stack-based array.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```triangular_matrix<T,  row_major, F, A>   m (size)``` a packed triangular matrix, orientation is row major.
```triangular_matrix<T,  column_major, F, A>   m (size)``` a packed triangular matrix, orientation is column major.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```banded_matrix<T,  row_major, A>   m (size1, size2, lower, upper)``` a packed banded matrix, orientation is row major.
```banded_matrix<T,  column_major, A>   m (size1, size2, lower, upper)``` a packed banded matrix, orientation is column major.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```symmetric_matrix<T,  row_major, F, A>   m (size)``` a packed symmetric matrix, orientation is row major.
```symmetric_matrix<T,  column_major, F, A>   m (size)``` a packed symmetric matrix, orientation is column major.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```hermitian_matrix<T,  row_major, F, A>   m (size)``` a packed hermitian matrix, orientation is row major.
```hermitian_matrix<T,  column_major, F, A>   m (size)``` a packed hermitian matrix, orientation is column major.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```mapped_matrix<T,  row_major,  std::map<std::size_t, T> >   m (size1, size2, non_zeros)``` a sparse matrix, orientation is row major, storage is provided by a standard map.
```mapped_matrix<T,  column_major,  std::map<std::size_t, T> >   m (size1, size2, non_zeros)``` a sparse matrix, orientation is column major, storage is provided by a standard map.
```mapped_matrix<T,  row_major,  map_array<std::size_t, T> >   m (size1, size2, non_zeros)``` a sparse matrix, orientation is row major, storage is provided by a map array.
```mapped_matrix<T,  column_major,  map_array<std::size_t, T> >   m (size1, size2, non_zeros)``` a sparse matrix, orientation is column major, storage is provided by a map array.
```compressed_matrix<T,  row_major>   m (size1, size2, non_zeros)``` a compressed matrix, orientation is row major.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```compressed_matrix<T,  column_major>   m (size1, size2, non_zeros)``` a compressed matrix, orientation is column major.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```coordinate_matrix<T,  row_major>   m (size1, size2, non_zeros)``` a coordinate matrix, orientation is row major.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.
```coordinate_matrix<T,  column_major>   m (size1, size2, non_zeros)``` a coordinate matrix, orientation is column major.
The storage layout usually is BLAS compliant.