Boost C++ Libraries

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This is the documentation for a snapshot of the master branch, built from commit 1921ec4c32.

libs/beast/example/advanced/server-flex/advanced_server_flex.cpp

//
// Copyright (c) 2016-2019 Vinnie Falco (vinnie dot falco at gmail dot com)
//
// Distributed under the Boost Software License, Version 1.0. (See accompanying
// file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)
//
// Official repository: https://github.com/boostorg/beast
//

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Example: Advanced server, flex (plain + SSL)
//
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#include "example/common/server_certificate.hpp"

#include <boost/beast/core.hpp>
#include <boost/beast/http.hpp>
#include <boost/beast/ssl.hpp>
#include <boost/beast/websocket.hpp>
#include <boost/beast/version.hpp>
#include <boost/asio/bind_executor.hpp>
#include <boost/asio/dispatch.hpp>
#include <boost/asio/signal_set.hpp>
#include <boost/asio/steady_timer.hpp>
#include <boost/asio/strand.hpp>
#include <boost/make_unique.hpp>
#include <boost/optional.hpp>
#include <algorithm>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <functional>
#include <iostream>
#include <memory>
#include <string>
#include <thread>
#include <vector>

namespace beast = boost::beast;                 // from <boost/beast.hpp>
namespace http = beast::http;                   // from <boost/beast/http.hpp>
namespace websocket = beast::websocket;         // from <boost/beast/websocket.hpp>
namespace net = boost::asio;                    // from <boost/asio.hpp>
namespace ssl = boost::asio::ssl;               // from <boost/asio/ssl.hpp>
using tcp = boost::asio::ip::tcp;               // from <boost/asio/ip/tcp.hpp>

// Return a reasonable mime type based on the extension of a file.
beast::string_view
mime_type(beast::string_view path)
{
    using beast::iequals;
    auto const ext = [&path]
    {
        auto const pos = path.rfind(".");
        if(pos == beast::string_view::npos)
            return beast::string_view{};
        return path.substr(pos);
    }();
    if(iequals(ext, ".htm"))  return "text/html";
    if(iequals(ext, ".html")) return "text/html";
    if(iequals(ext, ".php"))  return "text/html";
    if(iequals(ext, ".css"))  return "text/css";
    if(iequals(ext, ".txt"))  return "text/plain";
    if(iequals(ext, ".js"))   return "application/javascript";
    if(iequals(ext, ".json")) return "application/json";
    if(iequals(ext, ".xml"))  return "application/xml";
    if(iequals(ext, ".swf"))  return "application/x-shockwave-flash";
    if(iequals(ext, ".flv"))  return "video/x-flv";
    if(iequals(ext, ".png"))  return "image/png";
    if(iequals(ext, ".jpe"))  return "image/jpeg";
    if(iequals(ext, ".jpeg")) return "image/jpeg";
    if(iequals(ext, ".jpg"))  return "image/jpeg";
    if(iequals(ext, ".gif"))  return "image/gif";
    if(iequals(ext, ".bmp"))  return "image/bmp";
    if(iequals(ext, ".ico"))  return "image/vnd.microsoft.icon";
    if(iequals(ext, ".tiff")) return "image/tiff";
    if(iequals(ext, ".tif"))  return "image/tiff";
    if(iequals(ext, ".svg"))  return "image/svg+xml";
    if(iequals(ext, ".svgz")) return "image/svg+xml";
    return "application/text";
}

// Append an HTTP rel-path to a local filesystem path.
// The returned path is normalized for the platform.
std::string
path_cat(
    beast::string_view base,
    beast::string_view path)
{
    if(base.empty())
        return std::string(path);
    std::string result(base);
#ifdef BOOST_MSVC
    char constexpr path_separator = '\\';
    if(result.back() == path_separator)
        result.resize(result.size() - 1);
    result.append(path.data(), path.size());
    for(auto& c : result)
        if(c == '/')
            c = path_separator;
#else
    char constexpr path_separator = '/';
    if(result.back() == path_separator)
        result.resize(result.size() - 1);
    result.append(path.data(), path.size());
#endif
    return result;
}

// This function produces an HTTP response for the given
// request. The type of the response object depends on the
// contents of the request, so the interface requires the
// caller to pass a generic lambda for receiving the response.
template<
    class Body, class Allocator,
    class Send>
void
handle_request(
    beast::string_view doc_root,
    http::request<Body, http::basic_fields<Allocator>>&& req,
    Send&& send)
{
    // Returns a bad request response
    auto const bad_request =
    [&req](beast::string_view why)
    {
        http::response<http::string_body> res{http::status::bad_request, req.version()};
        res.set(http::field::server, BOOST_BEAST_VERSION_STRING);
        res.set(http::field::content_type, "text/html");
        res.keep_alive(req.keep_alive());
        res.body() = std::string(why);
        res.prepare_payload();
        return res;
    };

    // Returns a not found response
    auto const not_found =
    [&req](beast::string_view target)
    {
        http::response<http::string_body> res{http::status::not_found, req.version()};
        res.set(http::field::server, BOOST_BEAST_VERSION_STRING);
        res.set(http::field::content_type, "text/html");
        res.keep_alive(req.keep_alive());
        res.body() = "The resource '" + std::string(target) + "' was not found.";
        res.prepare_payload();
        return res;
    };

    // Returns a server error response
    auto const server_error =
    [&req](beast::string_view what)
    {
        http::response<http::string_body> res{http::status::internal_server_error, req.version()};
        res.set(http::field::server, BOOST_BEAST_VERSION_STRING);
        res.set(http::field::content_type, "text/html");
        res.keep_alive(req.keep_alive());
        res.body() = "An error occurred: '" + std::string(what) + "'";
        res.prepare_payload();
        return res;
    };

    // Make sure we can handle the method
    if( req.method() != http::verb::get &&
        req.method() != http::verb::head)
        return send(bad_request("Unknown HTTP-method"));

    // Request path must be absolute and not contain "..".
    if( req.target().empty() ||
        req.target()[0] != '/' ||
        req.target().find("..") != beast::string_view::npos)
        return send(bad_request("Illegal request-target"));

    // Build the path to the requested file
    std::string path = path_cat(doc_root, req.target());
    if(req.target().back() == '/')
        path.append("index.html");

    // Attempt to open the file
    beast::error_code ec;
    http::file_body::value_type body;
    body.open(path.c_str(), beast::file_mode::scan, ec);

    // Handle the case where the file doesn't exist
    if(ec == beast::errc::no_such_file_or_directory)
        return send(not_found(req.target()));

    // Handle an unknown error
    if(ec)
        return send(server_error(ec.message()));

    // Cache the size since we need it after the move
    auto const size = body.size();

    // Respond to HEAD request
    if(req.method() == http::verb::head)
    {
        http::response<http::empty_body> res{http::status::ok, req.version()};
        res.set(http::field::server, BOOST_BEAST_VERSION_STRING);
        res.set(http::field::content_type, mime_type(path));
        res.content_length(size);
        res.keep_alive(req.keep_alive());
        return send(std::move(res));
    }

    // Respond to GET request
    http::response<http::file_body> res{
        std::piecewise_construct,
        std::make_tuple(std::move(body)),
        std::make_tuple(http::status::ok, req.version())};
    res.set(http::field::server, BOOST_BEAST_VERSION_STRING);
    res.set(http::field::content_type, mime_type(path));
    res.content_length(size);
    res.keep_alive(req.keep_alive());
    return send(std::move(res));
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Report a failure
void
fail(beast::error_code ec, char const* what)
{
    // ssl::error::stream_truncated, also known as an SSL "short read",
    // indicates the peer closed the connection without performing the
    // required closing handshake (for example, Google does this to
    // improve performance). Generally this can be a security issue,
    // but if your communication protocol is self-terminated (as
    // it is with both HTTP and WebSocket) then you may simply
    // ignore the lack of close_notify.
    //
    // https://github.com/boostorg/beast/issues/38
    //
    // https://security.stackexchange.com/questions/91435/how-to-handle-a-malicious-ssl-tls-shutdown
    //
    // When a short read would cut off the end of an HTTP message,
    // Beast returns the error beast::http::error::partial_message.
    // Therefore, if we see a short read here, it has occurred
    // after the message has been completed, so it is safe to ignore it.

    if(ec == net::ssl::error::stream_truncated)
        return;

    std::cerr << what << ": " << ec.message() << "\n";
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Echoes back all received WebSocket messages.
// This uses the Curiously Recurring Template Pattern so that
// the same code works with both SSL streams and regular sockets.
template<class Derived>
class websocket_session
{
    // Access the derived class, this is part of
    // the Curiously Recurring Template Pattern idiom.
    Derived&
    derived()
    {
        return static_cast<Derived&>(*this);
    }

    beast::flat_buffer buffer_;

    // Start the asynchronous operation
    template<class Body, class Allocator>
    void
    do_accept(http::request<Body, http::basic_fields<Allocator>> req)
    {
        // Set suggested timeout settings for the websocket
        derived().ws().set_option(
            websocket::stream_base::timeout::suggested(
                beast::role_type::server));

        // Set a decorator to change the Server of the handshake
        derived().ws().set_option(
            websocket::stream_base::decorator(
            [](websocket::response_type& res)
            {
                res.set(http::field::server,
                    std::string(BOOST_BEAST_VERSION_STRING) +
                        " advanced-server-flex");
            }));

        // Accept the websocket handshake
        derived().ws().async_accept(
            req,
            beast::bind_front_handler(
                &websocket_session::on_accept,
                derived().shared_from_this()));
    }

    void
    on_accept(beast::error_code ec)
    {
        if(ec)
            return fail(ec, "accept");

        // Read a message
        do_read();
    }

    void
    do_read()
    {
        // Read a message into our buffer
        derived().ws().async_read(
            buffer_,
            beast::bind_front_handler(
                &websocket_session::on_read,
                derived().shared_from_this()));
    }

    void
    on_read(
        beast::error_code ec,
        std::size_t bytes_transferred)
    {
        boost::ignore_unused(bytes_transferred);

        // This indicates that the websocket_session was closed
        if(ec == websocket::error::closed)
            return;

        if(ec)
            fail(ec, "read");

        // Echo the message
        derived().ws().text(derived().ws().got_text());
        derived().ws().async_write(
            buffer_.data(),
            beast::bind_front_handler(
                &websocket_session::on_write,
                derived().shared_from_this()));
    }

    void
    on_write(
        beast::error_code ec,
        std::size_t bytes_transferred)
    {
        boost::ignore_unused(bytes_transferred);

        if(ec)
            return fail(ec, "write");

        // Clear the buffer
        buffer_.consume(buffer_.size());

        // Do another read
        do_read();
    }

public:
    // Start the asynchronous operation
    template<class Body, class Allocator>
    void
    run(http::request<Body, http::basic_fields<Allocator>> req)
    {
        // Accept the WebSocket upgrade request
        do_accept(std::move(req));
    }
};

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Handles a plain WebSocket connection
class plain_websocket_session
    : public websocket_session<plain_websocket_session>
    , public std::enable_shared_from_this<plain_websocket_session>
{
    websocket::stream<beast::tcp_stream> ws_;

public:
    // Create the session
    explicit
    plain_websocket_session(
        beast::tcp_stream&& stream)
        : ws_(std::move(stream))
    {
    }

    // Called by the base class
    websocket::stream<beast::tcp_stream>&
    ws()
    {
        return ws_;
    }
};

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Handles an SSL WebSocket connection
class ssl_websocket_session
    : public websocket_session<ssl_websocket_session>
    , public std::enable_shared_from_this<ssl_websocket_session>
{
    websocket::stream<
        beast::ssl_stream<beast::tcp_stream>> ws_;

public:
    // Create the ssl_websocket_session
    explicit
    ssl_websocket_session(
        beast::ssl_stream<beast::tcp_stream>&& stream)
        : ws_(std::move(stream))
    {
    }

    // Called by the base class
    websocket::stream<
        beast::ssl_stream<beast::tcp_stream>>&
    ws()
    {
        return ws_;
    }
};

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

template<class Body, class Allocator>
void
make_websocket_session(
    beast::tcp_stream stream,
    http::request<Body, http::basic_fields<Allocator>> req)
{
    std::make_shared<plain_websocket_session>(
        std::move(stream))->run(std::move(req));
}

template<class Body, class Allocator>
void
make_websocket_session(
    beast::ssl_stream<beast::tcp_stream> stream,
    http::request<Body, http::basic_fields<Allocator>> req)
{
    std::make_shared<ssl_websocket_session>(
        std::move(stream))->run(std::move(req));
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Handles an HTTP server connection.
// This uses the Curiously Recurring Template Pattern so that
// the same code works with both SSL streams and regular sockets.
template<class Derived>
class http_session
{
    // Access the derived class, this is part of
    // the Curiously Recurring Template Pattern idiom.
    Derived&
    derived()
    {
        return static_cast<Derived&>(*this);
    }

    // This queue is used for HTTP pipelining.
    class queue
    {
        enum
        {
            // Maximum number of responses we will queue
            limit = 8
        };

        // The type-erased, saved work item
        struct work
        {
            virtual ~work() = default;
            virtual void operator()() = 0;
        };

        http_session& self_;
        std::vector<std::unique_ptr<work>> items_;

    public:
        explicit
        queue(http_session& self)
            : self_(self)
        {
            static_assert(limit > 0, "queue limit must be positive");
            items_.reserve(limit);
        }

        // Returns `true` if we have reached the queue limit
        bool
        is_full() const
        {
            return items_.size() >= limit;
        }

        // Called when a message finishes sending
        // Returns `true` if the caller should initiate a read
        bool
        on_write()
        {
            BOOST_ASSERT(! items_.empty());
            auto const was_full = is_full();
            items_.erase(items_.begin());
            if(! items_.empty())
                (*items_.front())();
            return was_full;
        }

        // Called by the HTTP handler to send a response.
        template<bool isRequest, class Body, class Fields>
        void
        operator()(http::message<isRequest, Body, Fields>&& msg)
        {
            // This holds a work item
            struct work_impl : work
            {
                http_session& self_;
                http::message<isRequest, Body, Fields> msg_;

                work_impl(
                    http_session& self,
                    http::message<isRequest, Body, Fields>&& msg)
                    : self_(self)
                    , msg_(std::move(msg))
                {
                }

                void
                operator()()
                {
                    http::async_write(
                        self_.derived().stream(),
                        msg_,
                        beast::bind_front_handler(
                            &http_session::on_write,
                            self_.derived().shared_from_this(),
                            msg_.need_eof()));
                }
            };

            // Allocate and store the work
            items_.push_back(
                boost::make_unique<work_impl>(self_, std::move(msg)));

            // If there was no previous work, start this one
            if(items_.size() == 1)
                (*items_.front())();
        }
    };

    std::shared_ptr<std::string const> doc_root_;
    queue queue_;

    // The parser is stored in an optional container so we can
    // construct it from scratch it at the beginning of each new message.
    boost::optional<http::request_parser<http::string_body>> parser_;

protected:
    beast::flat_buffer buffer_;

public:
    // Construct the session
    http_session(
        beast::flat_buffer buffer,
        std::shared_ptr<std::string const> const& doc_root)
        : doc_root_(doc_root)
        , queue_(*this)
        , buffer_(std::move(buffer))
    {
    }

    void
    do_read()
    {
        // Construct a new parser for each message
        parser_.emplace();

        // Apply a reasonable limit to the allowed size
        // of the body in bytes to prevent abuse.
        parser_->body_limit(10000);

        // Set the timeout.
        beast::get_lowest_layer(
            derived().stream()).expires_after(std::chrono::seconds(30));

        // Read a request using the parser-oriented interface
        http::async_read(
            derived().stream(),
            buffer_,
            *parser_,
            beast::bind_front_handler(
                &http_session::on_read,
                derived().shared_from_this()));
    }

    void
    on_read(beast::error_code ec, std::size_t bytes_transferred)
    {
        boost::ignore_unused(bytes_transferred);

        // This means they closed the connection
        if(ec == http::error::end_of_stream)
            return derived().do_eof();

        if(ec)
            return fail(ec, "read");

        // See if it is a WebSocket Upgrade
        if(websocket::is_upgrade(parser_->get()))
        {
            // Disable the timeout.
            // The websocket::stream uses its own timeout settings.
            beast::get_lowest_layer(derived().stream()).expires_never();

            // Create a websocket session, transferring ownership
            // of both the socket and the HTTP request.
            return make_websocket_session(
                derived().release_stream(),
                parser_->release());
        }

        // Send the response
        handle_request(*doc_root_, parser_->release(), queue_);

        // If we aren't at the queue limit, try to pipeline another request
        if(! queue_.is_full())
            do_read();
    }

    void
    on_write(bool close, beast::error_code ec, std::size_t bytes_transferred)
    {
        boost::ignore_unused(bytes_transferred);

        if(ec)
            return fail(ec, "write");

        if(close)
        {
            // This means we should close the connection, usually because
            // the response indicated the "Connection: close" semantic.
            return derived().do_eof();
        }

        // Inform the queue that a write completed
        if(queue_.on_write())
        {
            // Read another request
            do_read();
        }
    }
};

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Handles a plain HTTP connection
class plain_http_session
    : public http_session<plain_http_session>
    , public std::enable_shared_from_this<plain_http_session>
{
    beast::tcp_stream stream_;

public:
    // Create the session
    plain_http_session(
        beast::tcp_stream&& stream,
        beast::flat_buffer&& buffer,
        std::shared_ptr<std::string const> const& doc_root)
        : http_session<plain_http_session>(
            std::move(buffer),
            doc_root)
        , stream_(std::move(stream))
    {
    }

    // Start the session
    void
    run()
    {
        this->do_read();
    }

    // Called by the base class
    beast::tcp_stream&
    stream()
    {
        return stream_;
    }

    // Called by the base class
    beast::tcp_stream
    release_stream()
    {
        return std::move(stream_);
    }

    // Called by the base class
    void
    do_eof()
    {
        // Send a TCP shutdown
        beast::error_code ec;
        stream_.socket().shutdown(tcp::socket::shutdown_send, ec);

        // At this point the connection is closed gracefully
    }
};

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Handles an SSL HTTP connection
class ssl_http_session
    : public http_session<ssl_http_session>
    , public std::enable_shared_from_this<ssl_http_session>
{
    beast::ssl_stream<beast::tcp_stream> stream_;

public:
    // Create the http_session
    ssl_http_session(
        beast::tcp_stream&& stream,
        ssl::context& ctx,
        beast::flat_buffer&& buffer,
        std::shared_ptr<std::string const> const& doc_root)
        : http_session<ssl_http_session>(
            std::move(buffer),
            doc_root)
        , stream_(std::move(stream), ctx)
    {
    }

    // Start the session
    void
    run()
    {
        // Set the timeout.
        beast::get_lowest_layer(stream_).expires_after(std::chrono::seconds(30));

        // Perform the SSL handshake
        // Note, this is the buffered version of the handshake.
        stream_.async_handshake(
            ssl::stream_base::server,
            buffer_.data(),
            beast::bind_front_handler(
                &ssl_http_session::on_handshake,
                shared_from_this()));
    }

    // Called by the base class
    beast::ssl_stream<beast::tcp_stream>&
    stream()
    {
        return stream_;
    }

    // Called by the base class
    beast::ssl_stream<beast::tcp_stream>
    release_stream()
    {
        return std::move(stream_);
    }

    // Called by the base class
    void
    do_eof()
    {
        // Set the timeout.
        beast::get_lowest_layer(stream_).expires_after(std::chrono::seconds(30));

        // Perform the SSL shutdown
        stream_.async_shutdown(
            beast::bind_front_handler(
                &ssl_http_session::on_shutdown,
                shared_from_this()));
    }

private:
    void
    on_handshake(
        beast::error_code ec,
        std::size_t bytes_used)
    {
        if(ec)
            return fail(ec, "handshake");

        // Consume the portion of the buffer used by the handshake
        buffer_.consume(bytes_used);

        do_read();
    }

    void
    on_shutdown(beast::error_code ec)
    {
        if(ec)
            return fail(ec, "shutdown");

        // At this point the connection is closed gracefully
    }
};

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Detects SSL handshakes
class detect_session : public std::enable_shared_from_this<detect_session>
{
    beast::tcp_stream stream_;
    ssl::context& ctx_;
    std::shared_ptr<std::string const> doc_root_;
    beast::flat_buffer buffer_;

public:
    explicit
    detect_session(
        tcp::socket&& socket,
        ssl::context& ctx,
        std::shared_ptr<std::string const> const& doc_root)
        : stream_(std::move(socket))
        , ctx_(ctx)
        , doc_root_(doc_root)
    {
    }

    // Launch the detector
    void
    run()
    {
        // We need to be executing within a strand to perform async operations
        // on the I/O objects in this session. Although not strictly necessary
        // for single-threaded contexts, this example code is written to be
        // thread-safe by default.
        net::dispatch(
            stream_.get_executor(),
            beast::bind_front_handler(
                &detect_session::on_run,
                this->shared_from_this()));
    }

    void
    on_run()
    {
        // Set the timeout.
        stream_.expires_after(std::chrono::seconds(30));

        beast::async_detect_ssl(
            stream_,
            buffer_,
            beast::bind_front_handler(
                &detect_session::on_detect,
                this->shared_from_this()));
    }

    void
    on_detect(beast::error_code ec, bool result)
    {
        if(ec)
            return fail(ec, "detect");

        if(result)
        {
            // Launch SSL session
            std::make_shared<ssl_http_session>(
                std::move(stream_),
                ctx_,
                std::move(buffer_),
                doc_root_)->run();
            return;
        }

        // Launch plain session
        std::make_shared<plain_http_session>(
            std::move(stream_),
            std::move(buffer_),
            doc_root_)->run();
    }
};

// Accepts incoming connections and launches the sessions
class listener : public std::enable_shared_from_this<listener>
{
    net::io_context& ioc_;
    ssl::context& ctx_;
    tcp::acceptor acceptor_;
    std::shared_ptr<std::string const> doc_root_;

public:
    listener(
        net::io_context& ioc,
        ssl::context& ctx,
        tcp::endpoint endpoint,
        std::shared_ptr<std::string const> const& doc_root)
        : ioc_(ioc)
        , ctx_(ctx)
        , acceptor_(net::make_strand(ioc))
        , doc_root_(doc_root)
    {
        beast::error_code ec;

        // Open the acceptor
        acceptor_.open(endpoint.protocol(), ec);
        if(ec)
        {
            fail(ec, "open");
            return;
        }

        // Allow address reuse
        acceptor_.set_option(net::socket_base::reuse_address(true), ec);
        if(ec)
        {
            fail(ec, "set_option");
            return;
        }

        // Bind to the server address
        acceptor_.bind(endpoint, ec);
        if(ec)
        {
            fail(ec, "bind");
            return;
        }

        // Start listening for connections
        acceptor_.listen(
            net::socket_base::max_listen_connections, ec);
        if(ec)
        {
            fail(ec, "listen");
            return;
        }
    }

    // Start accepting incoming connections
    void
    run()
    {
        do_accept();
    }

private:
    void
    do_accept()
    {
        // The new connection gets its own strand
        acceptor_.async_accept(
            net::make_strand(ioc_),
            beast::bind_front_handler(
                &listener::on_accept,
                shared_from_this()));
    }

    void
    on_accept(beast::error_code ec, tcp::socket socket)
    {
        if(ec)
        {
            fail(ec, "accept");
        }
        else
        {
            // Create the detector http_session and run it
            std::make_shared<detect_session>(
                std::move(socket),
                ctx_,
                doc_root_)->run();
        }

        // Accept another connection
        do_accept();
    }
};

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
    // Check command line arguments.
    if (argc != 5)
    {
        std::cerr <<
            "Usage: advanced-server-flex <address> <port> <doc_root> <threads>\n" <<
            "Example:\n" <<
            "    advanced-server-flex 0.0.0.0 8080 . 1\n";
        return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }
    auto const address = net::ip::make_address(argv[1]);
    auto const port = static_cast<unsigned short>(std::atoi(argv[2]));
    auto const doc_root = std::make_shared<std::string>(argv[3]);
    auto const threads = std::max<int>(1, std::atoi(argv[4]));

    // The io_context is required for all I/O
    net::io_context ioc{threads};

    // The SSL context is required, and holds certificates
    ssl::context ctx{ssl::context::tlsv12};

    // This holds the self-signed certificate used by the server
    load_server_certificate(ctx);

    // Create and launch a listening port
    std::make_shared<listener>(
        ioc,
        ctx,
        tcp::endpoint{address, port},
        doc_root)->run();

    // Capture SIGINT and SIGTERM to perform a clean shutdown
    net::signal_set signals(ioc, SIGINT, SIGTERM);
    signals.async_wait(
        [&](beast::error_code const&, int)
        {
            // Stop the `io_context`. This will cause `run()`
            // to return immediately, eventually destroying the
            // `io_context` and all of the sockets in it.
            ioc.stop();
        });

    // Run the I/O service on the requested number of threads
    std::vector<std::thread> v;
    v.reserve(threads - 1);
    for(auto i = threads - 1; i > 0; --i)
        v.emplace_back(
        [&ioc]
        {
            ioc.run();
        });
    ioc.run();

    // (If we get here, it means we got a SIGINT or SIGTERM)

    // Block until all the threads exit
    for(auto& t : v)
        t.join();

    return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}