# Boost C++ Libraries

...one of the most highly regarded and expertly designed C++ library projects in the world.

##### Complements are supported too - and when to use them

Often you don't want the value of the CDF, but its complement, which is to say `1-p` rather than `p`. It is tempting to calculate the CDF and subtract it from `1`, but if `p` is very close to `1` then cancellation error will cause you to lose accuracy, perhaps totally.

In this library, whenever you want to receive a complement, just wrap all the function arguments in a call to `complement(...)`, for example:

```students_t dist(5);
cout << "CDF at t = 1 is " << cdf(dist, 1.0) << endl;
cout << "Complement of CDF at t = 1 is " << cdf(complement(dist, 1.0)) << endl;
```

But wait, now that we have a complement, we have to be able to use it as well. Any function that accepts a probability as an argument can also accept a complement by wrapping all of its arguments in a call to `complement(...)`, for example:

```students_t dist(5);

for(double i = 10; i < 1e10; i *= 10)
{
// Calculate the quantile for a 1 in i chance:
double t = quantile(complement(dist, 1/i));
// Print it out:
cout << "Quantile of students-t with 5 degrees of freedom\n"
"for a 1 in " << i << " chance is " << t << endl;
}
```
Tip Critical values are just quantiles Some texts talk about quantiles, or percentiles or fractiles, others about critical values, the basic rule is: Lower critical values are the same as the quantile. Upper critical values are the same as the quantile from the complement of the probability. For example, suppose we have a Bernoulli process, giving rise to a binomial distribution with success ratio 0.1 and 100 trials in total. The lower critical value for a probability of 0.05 is given by: `quantile(binomial(100, 0.1), 0.05)` and the upper critical value is given by: `quantile(complement(binomial(100, 0.1), 0.05))` which return 4.82 and 14.63 respectively.
Tip Why bother with complements anyway? It's very tempting to dispense with complements, and simply subtract the probability from 1 when required. However, consider what happens when the probability is very close to 1: let's say the probability expressed at float precision is `0.999999940f`, then ```1 - 0.999999940f = 5.96046448e-008```, but the result is actually accurate to just one single bit: the only bit that didn't cancel out! Or to look at this another way: consider that we want the risk of falsely rejecting the null-hypothesis in the Student's t test to be 1 in 1 billion, for a sample size of 10,000. This gives a probability of 1 - 10-9, which is exactly 1 when calculated at float precision. In this case calculating the quantile from the complement neatly solves the problem, so for example: `quantile(complement(students_t(10000), 1e-9))` returns the expected t-statistic `6.00336`, where as: `quantile(students_t(10000), 1-1e-9f)` raises an overflow error, since it is the same as: `quantile(students_t(10000), 1)` Which has no finite result. With all distributions, even for more reasonable probability (unless the value of p can be represented exactly in the floating-point type) the loss of accuracy quickly becomes significant if you simply calculate probability from 1 - p (because it will be mostly garbage digits for p ~ 1). So always avoid, for example, using a probability near to unity like 0.99999 ```quantile(my_distribution, 0.99999)``` and instead use ```quantile(complement(my_distribution, 0.00001))``` since 1 - 0.99999 is not exactly equal to 0.00001 when using floating-point arithmetic. This assumes that the 0.00001 value is either a constant, or can be computed by some manner other than subtracting 0.99999 from 1.